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The Landscaping Basics

Landscaping involves planning, designing, and converting an area into a garden. The goal is to create a balanced landscape pleasing to the eye. Choose plants that are adapted to your climate and conditions. This will save you time and effort and help to keep your yard healthy.

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The hardscaping components of your landscaping are the non-living features that add shape, structure, and function to outdoor spaces. Landscaping Harrisburg PA can include paving stones, gravel, bricks, fences, and posts. Hardscaping can also incorporate water elements such as ponds and fountains.

The hardest part of hardscaping is creating a design that balances well with softscape elements and the surrounding environment. However, it can be fairly simple if you follow some basic principles. First, create a plan of what you want to achieve with your hardscaping. This will help you determine what materials you need and what the best layout is. It can also give you an idea of how much work you’ll need to put into the project.

Once you’ve established a plan, choose a few hardscape pieces to start with. For example, you can install a retaining wall or stone stairs to help with drainage. This will prevent standing water, which can lead to a variety of problems, including mildew and algae growth and unwanted pests. It’s also a great way to make your yard more accessible for people with mobility issues. Finally, try to match the colors and textures of your hardscape with the rest of your home. This will create a cohesive, beautiful look and feel to your landscape.


Softscaping refers to the horticultural elements of your landscape design, which includes flowers, trees, grass, and shrubs. It incorporates duties like weed management, planting, and trimming.

A well-planned softscape will balance the hardscape of your outdoor living space. It can also create a calming natural oasis that you’ll enjoy spending time in, and it will enhance your home’s value. However, it’s important to remember that a yard that’s over-populated with plants will quickly become a mess and require more attention than is feasible.

The best way to balance soft and hardscape is by incorporating multi-purpose elements into your landscaping plan. For example, a retaining wall made from stone or brick can double as a flower bed. Or, a concrete walking path can separate different garden areas while adding character to your backyard.

Another benefit of incorporating softscape is that it helps to protect your house and outdoor living spaces from harsh weather conditions. For instance, a sheltered patio will shield you from strong winds and snowstorms. This is especially important if you live in an area that experiences extreme weather. It’s also worth noting that softscaping is a lot more fragile than hardscaping, so it requires more attention to keep it looking good.


In landscape design, contrast is a key element. Different plant colors, sizes, textures, and leaf structures can create visual variety that draws the eye. A variety of textures can also help a landscape design look unified. Plants with coarse, fine, or medium texture can be used to create a transition between areas of the garden.

Focalization is a term coined by Gerard Genette to distinguish narrative perspective and the question of who sees. Genette was attempting to refine the concept of point of view by separating the question of who sees and speaks from the issue of who controls narrative agency. This separation is important because it helps to avoid the typological conflation of these terms.

The concept of focalization is not only useful for analyzing fiction, but can be applied to non-fictional texts as well. In fact, some critics use the term to describe a style of writing that is more narratorial than journalistic. This type of writing can be found in books such as Little Women, which uses third-person omniscient narration to explore the thoughts of each character. This allows the writer to fill in gaps in the knowledge and worldview of the sisters that their sisters do not share with the audience.


The movement of a landscape, whether it’s a waterfall, stream, or winding path, can add a sense of drama to the photo. You can use a wide-angle lens to capture the scene’s overall movement, or you can blur the image for creative effect. Experiment with different shutter speeds to find the best combination of motion and light for your scene.

The School Garden Movement of the Progressive Era helped children explore and learn about nature. It influenced the development of playgrounds and the growth of community gardens, tenement house reform, and City Beautiful projects. It also contributed to the popularity of botanical gardens and the emergence of horticulture in urban areas.

The era of Romanticism intensified the interest in natural scenery. Painters like Caspar David Friedrich introduced a sense of the supernatural and mystery into their landscape painting. This heightened the appeal of remote and wild landscapes, which had been one of the recurrent themes in landscape art previously (Harmer par. 12). This paved the way for the English landscape movement.


Rhythm is one of the most important principles in landscape design. It creates movement and draws attention to specific areas of the landscape. It also creates balance and harmony. Rhythm can be achieved by using alternating patterns, such as large and small plants, light and dark colors, or repetition of line, form or color. It can be created by using a variety of techniques, such as varying the size and height of plants or by arranging them in a circle, square or triangle.

Landscape elements should be proportional to the size of the landscape. Large, high-scale elements can overpower a space and make it feel smaller. This is why it is important to carefully consider the scale of each landscape element.

A sequence is an arrangement of terms or objects in a certain order and according to a particular rule. A sequence can be finite or infinite, depending on how many terms are used and the relationship between them. For example, if the number 1 appears twice in a sequence, it is a finite sequence. In contrast, a sequence in which each term is created by adding a number to the previous one is an arithmetic sequence and it can be infinite.


Contrast is difference, and it’s what makes your landscape stand out from other green patches. Contrast can occur in color, form or texture, but it’s best used when it highlights a specific element within the composition. Without contrast, your landscape may appear boring and uninteresting.

Visual contrast is a common type of contrast and it involves matching or juxtaposing elements with very different characteristics. For example, pairing a yellow flower with its companion blue bloom or contrasting a wide swath of delicate ground cover with taller shrubs.

One of the simplest forms of contrast is using complementary colors (colors located on opposite sides of the color wheel). Complementary colors create a striking effect when they’re paired together, and their appearance can be enhanced by using other elements to accentuate them.

Another way to use contrast is through proportion. By varying the size of plant materials you can create interesting textures, shapes and sizes in your design. For example, in a California drought-tolerant garden, you could graduate the plantings from low prostrate groundcovers such as Yarrow to small shrubs like Lavender and larger shrubs such as ‘Dr. Hurd’ Manzanita and a crowning Valley Oak. This creates hierarchy and provides a sense of depth.


Unity is a powerful but also easy-to-use game engine for developing 3D games. It is used by both beginners and seasoned developers to create complex, professional-looking titles. It is a popular choice for mobile apps and other interactive projects. However, its limitations mean that it is not a good fit for large-scale, highly immersive landscapes or other types of projects that require a lot of processing power.

Unity offers several options for commercial users, including a Basic plan that is free with no limit on revenue or funding and the Plus version, which has a cap of $200,000 in revenue and funding. There is also a Pro option that does not have any limit and offers extra support and customer service.

Landscape design is the process of modifying an area of land for aesthetic and functional reasons. It can include the addition of plants, changing the terrain and construction of structures. It uses the principles of proportion, order, repetition and unity of design to produce an attractive and well-organized outdoor space. Practicing these principles can help you create your own unique landscape. To get started, study the landscapes in your neighborhood and community and try to identify the elements and principles that appeal to you.